How Will VFDs Alter Motor Efficiency (Pt. 2)

In the past article, we have established that VFDs are useful in applications where the load needs to be driven at various speed. Weve also seen the ease of how VFDs can be integrated into existing control system. But how do you maximize your investment on a VFD in the long run? This article offers useful hints.

Getting The Best Out Of Your VFD

It is pointless to drive a motor that is constantly running at 100% of its operating speed with a VFD. You will only get significant energy savings when the motor is operating at less than its maximum capacity. A VFD can reduce the speed of a pump or fan and opens a valve or damper with a lesser change in pressure.

A VFD does not suffer from hysteresis and outperforms valves and dampers in accuracy and repeatability. Besides that, it also minimizes wear on valves, dampers ducts, and pipes. The lifespan of rotators are increased as using a VFD creates less strain during start. Switchgear also does not suffer from unnecessary burden as the VFD draws minimal current when powered up.

With all considerations in place, it usually takes less than two years to have the savings in cost justifying the purchase of a VFD. A bigger motor usually means larger savings is achieved. Youll typically get great savings when integrating a VFD to a pump, although you need to ensure that the applications that are used do not require them to run at high speed.

Mixers and agitators can also benefit greatly from a VFD. Besides minimizing power consumption, a VFD provides better control in the mixing process. A conveyor system that needs its speed to be varied is also best fitted with a VFD.

Youll also want to take account of the use rate of the system itself. For example, a 50-hp motor that operates without stopping will consume more energy than a 100-HP that only runs for 8 hours on weekdays only. Assuming that both run at a reduced speed, the former one will benefit the most from a VFD.

Durability Of The VFD

As with any electronic product, the VFD is bound to fail eventually. Comparatively, VFDs have shorter shelf lives than soft starters. You may want to factor in the cost of removal, troubleshooting, and installation to reflect a better figure of the total savings in terms of money. If it fails after its warranty period, the repair cost shall be included as well.

The most common cause of VFD failures is the dc bus filtering electrolytic capacitors. This usually happens when the VFD is idling for a couple of years and it affects the electrolytes of the capacitor. To be safe in any situation, keep a VFD as a spare that hasnt be used for years, and get the capacitors replaced.

Its clear that installing a VFD on the right motor greatly increases its energy efficiency. With VFDs coming in different sizes and shapes, it is best to consult an experienced system integrator to know what best fits your application.

Have any questions? Contact us today and our staff will be ready to assist you!


How Will VFDs Alter Motor Efficiency

How Will VFDs Alter Motor Efficiency (Pt. 1)

When youre operating motor based equipment, energy efficiency has always been a concern, especially when calls for a greener environment are getting louder. If youve yet to explore the option of adding a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD), perhaps you should start doing so, especially after understanding the benefits of doing so.

Maximize Energy Saving With Variable Speed

As the name implies, a VFD is a device that controls the speed of an AC motor. A VFD is particularly useful in any application that requires the load to be operated at various speeds. With that said, any substantial energy-saving is only significant when youre not operating above 80% speed all the time.

A great example of a VFD application is the supply and exhaust fans of air handlers. Conventional methods use a damper operator to vary the air flow by opening and closing the damper operator. As the speed of the fan remains at full speed, this method is barely efficient. A VFD changes that by controlling the speed of the fan itself.

You can save a lot of energy with applications that see great variations in the motor speed. Applications that can benefit from VFDs are typically conveyors, mixers, fans, pumps, elevators and coordinated drives.

If youre running a motor at a fixed speed at all times, you may want to be cautious of not oversizing your motor. Aside from real power, a motor also draws reactive power to operate and this can affect the power factor, resulting in higher utility cost. The ideal design is to have the motor running near its rated load at the rated speed.

Integrating VFD With PLCs And Controllers

Getting a VFD integrated into a control system should not be a great concern these days. Newer PLCs and controllers feature Ethernet network that allows VFD to be connected directly. This allows the VFD to control the start/stop, forward/reverse and the set point of the motor. In case youre trying to integrate the VFD to an older motor drive where communication port is non-existence, you can easily hardwire the PLC output to the drives input to achieve the same functionality.

There are a couple of design concerns that you may want to pay attention to when it comes to VFDs. Youll want to be careful of regenerative energy that coupled back to the AC line created by overhauling load. Adding a dynamic braking resistor across the BRK+ and BRK- terminal will absorb the excess energy in a safe manner.

In applications that require your motor to run much at a much higher frequency than its specified rating, the motor will draw more current to stay at the correct speed. This happens because the available torque is dropping off while the horsepower remains constant. Extra precautions may be needed when determining your motor and drive in such situation.

We have more in-depth guides and tips in the second part of this article that you may not want to miss out on. Stay tuned and check it out before making your decision with a VFD.

Have any questions? Contact us today and our staff will be ready to assist you!


Nema Cabinet Ratings: Protecting a VFD from environmental conditions

Nema cabinet ratings are designed to protect electrical components from environment-specific threatening conditions. Nema cabinet ratings are made for a range of different environmental conditions. There are as many Nema cabinet ratings available as there are environmental conditions where equipment is installed.

VFD manufacturers will usually offer variable frequency drive (VFD) products in several different Nema cabinet ratings to cover a broad range of customer needs. Its important to choose the right Nema cabinet ratings for your VFD because:A.) you dont want your VFD to fail because then your operation is down / production is disrupted; and, B.) VFD warranty is often voided due to choosing the incorrect Nema cabinet ratings of VFD.

While there are a variety of Nema cabinet ratings available, the Type 1, 12, 3R, 3RX, 4, and 4X are specifically used in the Food and Beverage industry and HVAC industry. Of those Nema cabinet ratings, the Type 1, 12, and 3R options are used in over 95% of VFD installations. Type 3RX, 4, and 4X enclosures are available for unusually harsh and dusty environments. Whenever practically possible, mount the VFD in a stable environment, such as a mechanical room. Otherwise, make sure the Nema ratings for your VFD are susceptible to the environmental conditions of installation site.

UL Type 1 VFDs

  • Indoor locations only
  • Minimal dirt/dust in the air
  • No exposure to water spray or drips
  • Most common HVAC VFD enclosure

UL Type 12 VFDs

  • Indoor locations only
  • Dirty/dusty environment
  • Possibility to be splashed with water

UL Type 3R VFDs

  • Outdoor location
  • Minimal salt/corrosives in the air
  • Maximum ambient temperature 122F

UL Type 4 VFDs1

  • Indoor or outdoor locations2
  • Requirement to wash-down the VFD
  • Combination of dusty environment with
  • heavy moisture (fog)
  • Properly sized units may operate >122F

UL Type 4X VFDs1

  • Indoor or outdoor locations2
  • Requirement to wash-down the VFD
  • Significant salt/corrosives in the air
  • Properly sized units may operate >122F

UL Type 3RX VFDs

  • Identical to Type 3R except with stainless steel box
  • A degree of salt/corrosives in the air
  • enclosure appearance is important

When buying a VFD, make sure the VFD Nema cabinet ratings are susceptible to withstand the environmental conditions of installation site. If youre unsure which Nema cabinet best fits your application, contact Precision Electric with your application specifications; Precision Electric will provide you with a VFD quote that will meet your enclosure specifications. Call Precision Electricat 574-256-1000 for VFD repair, VFD replacement, or complex VFD project quotes.


Credit refs: most of the information in this articlewas originally published by ABB: LV drives division.

Some information was obtained from the ABB download center.Precision Electric is a certified ABB LV Drives

distributor and ABB Certified Startup Center. Certified Startup improves ABB Factory Warranties on LV Drives.

Additional information can be found at nema.org


ABB Process Automation: New I/O Solution now available

ABB Process automation projects have employed controller-centric distributed control system (DCS) architectures for decades. This approach creates dependencies between project tasks that complicate late changes. ABBs new I/O solution will make late and over budget ABB process automation projects a thing of the past.

For many years, controller-centric DCS architectures have been used in process automation projects. However, a controller-centric approach ties the multichannel I/O modules to a particular process controller, thus creating dependencies between project tasks, which complicates late changes. This aspect is known to be a primary cause of project cost overrun and schedule delay and is the reason why automation tasks are on the critical path in many capital projects.

ABBs new I/O solution and corresponding engineering software for the ABB AbilityTM System 800xA platform will make over budget or late ABB process automation projects a thing of the past.

ABB process automation:Freeze Over

Traditionally, most industrial technical projects feature a design freeze at a relatively early stage. After this point, automation engineers can finalize their design, order the required hardware such as controllers, I/O, etc. and start application programming. Changes made after the design freeze often results in rework and the later the changes are made, the higher the rework cost and the higher is the chance of a schedule delay. For companies that run many concurrent, there are large capital investment projects, each of which may be affected and they involve dozens of subcontractors and vendors for the project. The cumulative cost overruns and schedule delays can be significant. For this reason, these companies have long partnered with process automation providers to combine information stored in databases and spreadsheets with smart instrumentation and devices, digital fieldbus technologies and Ethernet-based I/O solutions to enable control systems to self-configure and validate, test, and provide documentation automatically. Adopting such an approach promotes the decoupling of ABB process automation project inter-dependencies and thus facilitates parallel execution. In particular, I/O commissioning can be done in parallel with the application engineering.

ABB process automation:System 800xAs Select IO to the rescue

To expedite the commissioning of I/O in parallel with other project engineering tasks and thus reduce the impact of hardwired signal changes, ABB developed an extension to the System 800xA family of I/O solutions called Select IO. Select IO is a single-channel I/O system for both process and safety applications that communicates with the system via a redundant industrial Ethernet I/O network 3. A redundant network has the characteristic that it is not tied to one particular controller.

Select IO has many benefits:

  • Terminations can be installed and wired in the field early on in the project, thus negating the need for bulky marshalling cabinets.
  • Many aspects of Select IO are standardized. This reduces testing overhead.
  • The hardware, I/O and the application can all be simulated in software.

Further, in the traditional approach to process automation projects, multichannel I/O modules were usually ordered from the supplier just after design freeze so that panel shops could start the assembly process. Any late changes would cause rework. With Select IO, the signal types (AI, AO, DI, DO) representing analog and digital inputs and outputs) can be defined much later by adding individual signal conditioning modules (SCMs), thus reducing the importance of the design freeze and the financial impact of any late changes. These factors allow standardized and compact Select IO cabinets to be built, pre-engineered, pretested and sent to site, where they can be installed and wired much earlier in the ABB process automation project than a traditional cabinet would be.

ABB process automation:new marshal in town

When I/O is made available on an Ethernet network, all the controllers can access it. Therefore, the I/O can be marshalled digitally, instead of physically with marshalling cabinets or cross-wiring. If a control application that requires connectivity to certain I/O signals is moved from one controller to another, no rework will be required as the I/O connectivity is marshalled automatically when the controller compiles its application software. This scheme minimizes the need for change orders to the end user or engineering contractor.

ABB process automation: xStream Engineering – configure, check, connect

The xStream Engineering concept encompasses the idea that, by using System 800xA, multiple (or x) work streams can occur simultaneously and autonomously (or decoupled) from each other. By reducing the dependencies of various project tasks and providing a means for them to converge later in the project, the risk of project delay is greatly reduced and the probability of on-time, or early, project completion is greatly increased. At the heart of this concept is the Ethernet I/O Wizard, which is part of the System 800xA engineering software. This can be used in any ABB process automation project but is best used to configure and functionally check Select IO in the field prior to, and separate from, the delivery of the application.

To illustrate how xStream engineering functions, consider two simple work streams. One stream comprises the tasks that can be performed in the field while the other is the application work done in another location (often at the offices of ABB or the system integrator). In the field, the I/O cabinets can be delivered early in the project and then later, just before commissioning occurs, the following steps are carried out:

  • Configure On a particular cluster of Select IO, the Select IO module base is populated with the SCM that matches the I/O type. Then a field kit comprising a controller and laptop with System 800xA engineering tools is connected to the Ethernet I/O field communications interface (FCI). The Select IO is automatically scanned and configured using data from the I/O list, including signal name, and supplemented with HART configuration data that resides within the field instrument. A test configuration is also automatically created based on the I/O type detected to help with functional loop checks.
  • Check with the I/O configured and a test configuration downloaded to the controller, smart and non-smart field equipment can be functionally checked in the field in parallel with the application engineering being done back at ABB process automation project center. Using System 800xAs documentation manager loop check templates, field testing and verification documentation is created and stored.
  • Connect: Once functionally checked, the I/O structure can be imported into the product application, which was engineered using the same signal names as the I/O configuration. Upon bringing the I/O configuration into the product system, the signals are soft marshalled automatically, no mapping is required. Any conflicts or missing I/O allocations are reported via the signal overview display and/or the Ethernet I/O Wizard and quickly corrected. The ABB process automation system is now ready for commissioning.

The steps above are performed in the field while the application code is being configured and checked by simulating hardware at ABBs or the system integrators premises. Select IO and System 800xAs engineering tools promote the decoupling of tasks and allow two independent teams to work in parallel and bound together with precision and efficiency.

The impact of changes during the ABB process automation project and commissioning time can thus be significantly reduced. Overall, Select IO, aided by System 800xAs engineering tools, helps meet the ultimate objective, which is to remove process automation from the critical path of capital projects. With this solution, there are fewer surprises, fewer change orders, earlier commissioning of projects and happier owner-operators.

Visit the ABB Website to learn more about ABB process automation projects and products. For ABB process automation engineering quotes, contact Precision Electric.


Article originally published by Alicia Dubay
ABB Industrial Automation, Control Tech.
in the ABB Tech Review publication

Difference between Eaton SVX9000 and SPX9000 adjustable speed drives

The difference between Eaton SVX9000 and SPX9000? Many Eaton customers call or email asking “what is the difference between Eaton SVX9000 and SPX9000?” There is only a small difference between the two drives other than a letter and the price. The difference between Eaton SVX9000 and SPX9000 is that the SPX9000 is used for applications with speed feedback and the SVX9000 is used on general purpose applications that do not need speed feedback.

Eaton’s SVX9000 adjustable frequency drive has sensorless vector control technology coupled with an adaptive motor model and sophisticated ASIC circuit. Sensorless vector technology allows for steady speed error, fast torque rise time, high immunity to resonance vibrations and high starting torque and current. The SVX9000 is suitable for multiple motor drive systems and high-speed applications.

The SVX9000 Series Adjustable Frequency Drives are specifically engineered for todays commercial and industrial applications. These drives continue the tradition of robust performance, and raise the bar on features and functionality, ensuring the best solution at the right price. SVX9000Features include: Startup Wizard, seven built-in applications, local/remote button, modular design, text display, and the following:

  • Ease of use:Startup Wizard, seven built-in applications, local/remote button, modular design, text display
  • Space-saving design:Compact design, open NEMA12 option, onboard I/O expansion provisions
  • Efficiency:Built-in 3% line reactor, EMI/RFI filter standard
  • Rugged and reliable:High overload (CT) and low overload (VT) rated, robust time-proven design, durable metal power section, brake chopper circuit.

SPX9000: difference between Eaton SVX9000 and SPX9000

Eaton’s SPX9000 drives are designed specifically for high-performance applications. They feature high processing power and the ability to use information from an encoder or a resolver to provide precise motor control. In addition, a fast microprocessor provides high dynamic performance for applications where good motor handling and reliability are required.

  • Sensorless vector and simple frequency control are supported.
  • The drives can be used in both open loop applications and in applications that require encoder feedback.
  • The SPX9000 supports fast drive-to-drive communication and an integrated data logger functionality.
  • Simultaneous fast monitoring of several drives can be done using the 9000X drive tool and CAN communications.

The main difference from the two products is that the SPX9000 can run motors with speed feedback (i.e. encoder or tachometer). The SVX9000 does not have the ability to run a motor with speed feedback. So if the application requires speed feedback, SPX9000 is the solution. If no speed feedback is needed, the SVX9000 is the solution.

To learn more about Eaton drives, visit the Eaton Website. For Eaton Repair and Replacement quotes, contact Precision Electric.

Cutler Hammer SVX9000 - An inside look

Cutler Hammer SVX9000 – An Overview Of Eaton’s General Purpose Drive

Cutler Hammer SVX9000 adjustable frequency drives are the compact, modular solution to variable speed applications. They enable a broad range of new application capabilities. A complete selection of option cards allows you to configure the drive to meet any requirement. With its wide voltage range, high overload ability, and user-friendly alphanumerical keypad, Cutler Hammer SVX9000 drives are the smart decision for every user.

Just three screws link the control module to the power module. Whats more, control units are interchangeable within frame sizes while software, control panels, I/O and communication cards are common throughout the line. Separating the power and control units provides installation advantages and reduced spare parts requirements. For convenience, the Cutler Hammer SVX9000 is field convertible from Type 1 to Type 12 (frames 46). Its reduced size equates to less panel space used and easy retrofits.

Even when the drive is unpowered, the Cutler Hammer SVX9000 can be programmed and tested. The control logic module can be powered from an external +24 Vdc source so youre ready to train, test and go live whenever needed. Whether you choose local or remote operations via the keypad, simple copy/paste functions streamline the process.

The Cutler Hammer SVX9000 may be configured with several different communication protocols, making it easy to communicate with all commonly used control systems. The control units powerful microprocessor can be used for local control tasks, thereby freeing resources of the control system for other control tasks. 9000XEngine, the versatile block-programming tool, eliminates the need for a PLC and significantly simplifies the control system.

The Cutler Hammer SVX9000 adjustable frequency drive offers sensor-less vector control technology coupled with an adaptive motor model and sophisticated ASIC circuit features. This technology allows for steady speed error, fast torque rise time, high immunity to resonance vibrations and high starting torque and current. The SVX9000 is suitable for multiple motor drive systems and high-speed applications.

Cutler Hammer SVX9000 is available in230V to 125 hp,480V to 250 hp,600V to 200 hp,Type 1/IP21Enclosedor Type 12/IP54 Enclosed. TheCutler Hammer SVX9000 offers the following communication options:

Modbus RTU/TCP

Cutler Hammer SVX9000 Software Tools

9000XLoad is an easy-to-use tool for uploading system, application and option card software intended for use by engineering, commissioning and service personnel. 9000XLoad is also suitable for loading custom applications to the SVX9000 drive.

9000XDrive is a software tool that allows uploading and downloading drive parameters. Parameters can be changed, saved, and uploaded to any number of SVX9000 drives. The tool has the ability to print parameters or save them to a file for future use and reference. Parameters can be compared to default values to determine drive setup. Operator functions include the ability to set references, start and stop the drive, and to monitor signals and actual values. These values can be displayed via a graphic display.

9000XEngine allows the user to create IEC 1131-3 compliant custom applications with 9000XEngine. This graphical design tool customizes the control logic and parameters in the SVX9000. Functional Block Diagram (FBD), Ladder Diagram (LD) and Structured Text (ST) are all part of the function set. 9000XEngine enables the creation of parameters, fault messages and other application related features.

The Cutler Hammer SVX9000 drive is sometimes mistaken for the Cutler Hammer SPX9000; the SPX9000 is a Cutler Hammer high performance drive and is available through 2000 HP.For Cutler Hammer SVX9000 user manuals and other product downloads, visit the Eaton Website. For Cutler Hammer SVX9000 drive repair and drive replacement quotes, contact Precision Electric. Precision Electric repairs all Cutler Hammer drive products through 2000 HP, in house.

VFD Overvoltage Fault - troubleshooting variable frequency drives

VFD Overvoltage Fault – troubleshooting variable frequency drives

A VFD overvoltage fault is fairly common with VFD regular usage. This fault may arise at different places and times for several reasons. The first step in resolving the problem is identifying when and where the fault occurs. A VFD overvoltage fault can occur on power up, during deceleration, acceleration, during normal run, or while sitting idle.

If the VFD overvoltage fault occurs during power up, the first thing to check is the incoming line voltage with a meter. If the line voltage is within specifications, find the jumper used to ground the common capacitors. This jumper will remove the common mode capacitors from ground. The VFD overvoltage fault may occur from ground noise coming back in through these capacitors causing a rise on the DC bus.

VFD overvoltage fault, at deceleration

The most common time a VFD overvoltage fault occurs is during deceleration. Sometimes the braking torque requirement exceeds drive braking circuit capacity. Other times the deceleration is too fast for its load and inertia from the load is going faster than the designated frequency. If you hit stop during a ramp down, the load spins faster than the designated frequency, the motor regenerates power back into the drive. The motor load then turns into a generator. This power is fed back into the drive, and stored on the DC bus. Extending the deceleration time is one way to solve a VFD overvoltage fault during deceleration.

If extending the deceleration time does not solve the VFD overvoltage fault, a dynamic brake may be required to dissipate the excess energy. A dynamic brake is a resistive device that takes energy from the bus and burns it off as heat. The only other solution is to reduce the inertia on the load to the motor. How you do that is dependent on your application. A constant overhauling load may be a good application for a regenerative drive, where instead of a dynamic brake removing energy by converting it to heat, a regenerative unit will put the energy back on the utility line, and may even decrease your energy bill.

A VFD Overvoltage fault during acceleration is uncommon, but it has been known to happen on high inertia loads with extensive acceleration times. A flywheel is a common high inertia application with timely acceleration. During acceleration, these type of loads can actually speed up quicker than the motor due to inertia, and the load becomes regenerative. To solve an overvoltage during acceleration, try to reduce the accel time. It usually takes some experimenting and fine tuning before a technician is satisfied with the results and commits to an accel time setting.

VFD overvoltage fault, operating normally

If the output load has a clutch, that may cause a VFD overvoltage fault. If there is a sudden drop in load, the motor speed may increase quickly, causing a regenerative load. If this is the case, a dynamic brake might help absorb the energy.A dynamic brake removes energy from the bus and burns it off as heat.With a high voltage line, and an application where a conveyor becomes less loaded, may be enough to turn the motor into a regenerative load. The drive is only able to absorb regenerative power to a certain extent, but too much will cause a VFD overvoltage fault.If the load is known to be stable, and not changing torque requirements drastically, then check the incoming line to the drive.

VFD overvoltage fault, when sitting idle

When high incoming AC voltage is present A VFD overvoltage fault can occur while the drive is sitting idle. If this VFD overvoltage fault is sporadic, theres something nearby that is causing the AC line to fluctuate. If you investigate large induction loads, see if they are causing the distribution line to change voltage.If an improperly tapped transformer is present, that can also cause an overvoltage fault by keeping the incoming line at the high end of the recommended voltage. This wont allow much room for voltage changes on the DC bus, if they were to occur. Incoming line fluctuations may not be detected by a multi-meter. If the voltage rise is quick and / or sharp, a multi-meter may not work fast enough to capture the reading. An oscilloscope or voltage monitor may be necessary to capture the voltage rise.
If the main incoming power line has power factor correction caps, switching in and out may also cause a large power spike. In this case, an isolation transformer or line reactor may be required on the front end of the drive to absorb the power spike.

Precision Electric offers drive repair and drive replacement for all manufacturer products. Precision Electric repairs AC and DC variable speed drives up to 3000 horsepower. Call Precision Electric for VFD repair and replacement quotes.






References: abb lv drives, ab rockwell

Differences Between ABB ACS550 and ACH550 VFD

Differences Between ABB ACS550 and ACH550 VFD

The are many differences between ABB ACS550 and ACH550 VFD products. If an exact replacement is unavailable, it’s important to know the differences between the ABB ACS550 and ACH550 VFD before deciding on which product to order.An ABB ACH550 can only be replaced with an ABB ACS550(or vice versa) in unique circumstances. The goal of replacing any drive is to get your machine running again, as efficiently & quickly as possible, without negatively impacting the application. This can be achieved by consulting an ABB certified low voltage drives integrator.In unique circumstances where an ACH550 can be replaced with an ACS550, maintenance technicians can potentially improve throughput and delivery while decreasing installation time and hardware cost.

The type of product is one of the main differences between ABB ACS550 and ACH550 VFD products. The ACH550 is an industry-specific drive, used mainly for HVAC (heating, venting, and air conditioning) applications. The ABB ACS550 is a general purpose drive (used by manufacturers, refineries, OEM’s, farmers, etc.) The keypad differences between ABB ACS550 and ACH550 VFD products makes them incompatible with each other.

Macros – differences between ABB ACS550 and ACH550 VFD

Macros are also key differences between ABB ACS550 and ACH550 VFD products. On pages 49-66 of the ACH550 user manual,technicians are able to view the following macros that are unique to the ABB ACH550:

  • HVAC Default
  • Supply Fan
  • Return Fan
  • Cooling Tower Fan
  • Condensor
  • Booster Pump
  • Internal Timer
  • Dual Setpoint with PID
  • Eclipse Bypass Macro
  • Bypass – Many more Bypass Options which are more commonly used in HVAC.

Fieldbus unique to ACH:

  • BACnet Router BACnet /IP to MS/TP
  • Lonworks
  • Metasys (JCI)
  • Profibus DP/FMS

Start Enable 1 & 2 on the ACH550 has permissive start interlock inputs that are typically used for connection of safety interlock contacts (Firestart, Freezestat). This makes the ACH550 drive inoperable and closes dampers during fires.

ACS550 Communications – differences between ABB ACS550 and ACH550 VFD

The following ABB ACS550 communications options are included in the ACS550 drives shipping package when purchased new but they are Not installed:

  • Speed Pot, Start / Stop and Fwd / Rev Switches
  • DeviceNet Adapter
  • Profibus DP Adapter
  • CANopen Adapter Module
  • ModBus RTU Adapter
  • ControlNet Adapter
  • Ethernet Adapter
  • Dual Port Ethernet Adapter

Experience – differences between ABB ACS550 and ACH550 VFD

Precision Electric has been working closely with manufacturers, OEMs, refineries, utilities and other customers in the industrial electrical field since 1983. Precision Electric offers the following onsite and in-house services: industrial electrical equipment repair and replacement, PLC programming, installation and repair; board repair, control cabinet design& manufacturing; customized engineered retrofit packages, AC & DC electric motor repair & rewinding services, and many other services to customers across the USA. Many repair centers in the USA send their customers’ equipment to Precision and then they markup the repair cost to their customers.

Precision Electric is an authorized & trained integrator, certified start up center and distributor for ABB low voltage drives. Precision Electric strongly suggests that technicians contactan ABB low voltage drives integrator before replacing an ACH550 with an ACS550(or vice versa). Replacing an ACH550 with an ACS550 may seem like a good idea to buyers if it’s saving their employer money on the hardware end. But, if the ACH550 drive-specific functions are needed in the application, the “money saved” will actually end up costing the buyer more money, time, throughput and possibly even their job.

For ABB ACS550 and ABB ACH550 documentation, visit the ABB Website. For ABB replacement or repair inquiries, contact Precision Electric.


Cutler Hammer VFD Fault Codes: Current and Overcurrent Protection

Cutler Hammer VFD Fault Codes, current control and overcurrent protection on the 9000X drive is based on motor current measurement in all three phases. In the FR9/CH61 and above drives, the current sensors are built into the IGBT SKIP modules, and the current signals are combined and fed into a 14-bit A/D converter on the lower ASIC board. The ASIC board sends the current levels to the control board via a fiber optic serial link. In the smaller drives, FR8/CH5 and below, the measured current signal is fed directly to the control board. The SVX has a 10-bit A/D converter and the SPX has a 14-bit A/D converter.

The 9000X air-cooled frequency converter ratings are based on a High Overload (IH) capability. This means the drive can provide 150% rated output current for 1 minute if the drive was operating at rated output current (IH) for at least 9 minutes. To get continued 150% overcurrent capability, the average current over the duty cycle cannot exceed the rated output current. The maximum drive output current (IS) for starting produces approximately 200% rated motor torque but because the currents are vector sums, IS is less than 200% IH. The drive can deliver IS for 2 seconds every 20 seconds. The drive current limit can be set to 200% (2 x IH) to deliver IH but to reduce the chance of an overcurrent or IGBT over temperature trip, it is better to set the current limit to 150% (1.5 x IH) or less. The actual drive output current available to the motor is dependent on ambient temperature at the intake to the drive, restrictions in airflow to the drive, and the drive frame size. Drive frames FR4FR9 can deliver rated current (IH) at 50C. Drive frames FR10 and above can deliver rated current (IH) at 40C except for the highest ratings of a drive frame, which may be limited to 35C. The Low Overload (IL ) rating is typically used for variable torque loads where an overload is not necessary even though a 1 (out of 10) minute overload of 110% is allowed. All drive frames are limited to 40C or less for the IL rating. The rated currents of each frame depend on a reduction of switching frequency when unit temperature reaches the warning level.

LCX thermal current rating: The LCX liquid-cooled drive has a Thermal maximum continuous rms current (Ith). Use this value for continuous or any overload requirements of the process. The liquid-cooled drive does not have a 1-minute overload current rating. The thermal current rating is dependent on proper coolant flow to each module and a module coolant inlet temperature of 30C.

Current limit (software-function): The drive will attempt to limit drive output current to the current limit setting by overriding the Cutler Hammer VFD fault codes and lower the frequency reference until current is within the current limit setting. If unit temperature nears the warning level, the drive will reduce the output frequency in an attempt to bring drive output current down to a continuous current that is approximately the Low Overload (IL ) current rating. The control will not allow any further overcurrent conditions until the average current over the duty cycle is less than the drives current rating. The liquid-cooled drive control will attempt to limit the output current to the current limit setting up to the drives thermal rating, I th. The application should be designed to avoid using the current limiter for control. The safest way to operate the drive is to keep the drive output current within ratings with appropriate ramp times or a controlled reference to the drive.

Current cutter (hardware-function): If the drive software cannot prevent output current from exceeding 200% IH, a current cutter stops firing the IGBTs when the measured instantaneous value of the current exceeds 360% IH to reduce current quickly before overcurrent Cutler Hammer VFD fault codes trip the drive. They are re-fired on the next top of the triangle wave. The current cutter is active on select units FR8/CH5 and smaller.

Saturation fault (hardware-function): If the other current control and protection functions are not fast enough to prevent an extreme overcurrent condition, the IGBT saturates and the resulting voltage drop across the IGBT causes an F7, Saturation trip and all IGBTs are immediately switched off by the gate driver board. The brake chopper IGBT also has saturation protection and gives the same trip indication. Power to the drive must be cycled to reset this trip. This function is not yet available on drives FR10/CH61 and larger.

Visit the Eaton Website for information on additional Cutler Hammer VFD Fault Codes. Contact Precision Electric for Cutler Hammer VFD repair and replacement quotes.

De-Rating ABB Drives For Single Phase Input With ACS310 and ACS355 Series

De-Rating ABB Drives for single phase input is possible with the ABB ACS310and ACS355 Series drives. The ACS3XX-01U drives ratings are supplied in standard ratings for a single-phase supply voltage ranging from 200 to 240 V. They would then be used to operate a three-phase motor. It is also possible to supply 230 V single phase power to some three phase drive ratings but this would require a de-rating of the output current when choosing a drive. Table Showing Drive Rating and Available Output Current When Single Phase Input Power Is Applied:

De-Rating ABB Drives for single phase input should only be performed by electrical technicians. If you’re de-rating ABB drives for single phase input, contact someonewith experience before purchasing or installing equipment. To learn more about ABB drives, visit the ABB Website. To purchase ABB drives or for ABB drive repair, contact Precision Electric.

Lenze USA VFD Drives

Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers: ABB, Eaton, Lenze, and Hitachi

Variable frequency drive manufacturers offer products to be used with electric motors.A variable frequency drive is also known as a VFD, variable speed drive, adjustable speed drive, electronic motor controller, or an inverter. Every VFD is unique with its own component characteristics; so, how each VFD works is dependent upon components within the VFD. Most VFDs integrate a solid state electronics controller, consisting of a bridge rectifier, a converter, and an inverter module. Properly applied variable frequency drives can significantly reduce production operating costs.

Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers: ABB

ABB low voltage drives are used globally. ABB low voltage drives are designed specifically for the following industries: textile, material handling, mining, cement, rubber and plastics, food and beverage, consumer goods, automotive, oil and gas, pulp and paper, water filtration, and waste water treatment. ABB manufactures specific products for each of these industries to provide the best possible performance while keeping cost to an absolute minimum.

ABBmicro drivesinclude models ACS55 and ACS150. ABB micro drives are very easy to install and set up. ABB micro drives provide flexible mounting alternatives and straightforward configuration for many basic applications. Each drive is tested before it leaves the factory providing high machineavailability. ABB local customer and technical support is available no matter where ABB micro drives are delivered and installed. ABBmachinerydrives include models ACS55, ACS150 and ACS355. ABB machinery drives are designed to meet the production and performance needs of machine builders, system integration specialists, panel builders and end users. ABB machinery drives can be flexibly programmed to meet the demands of different machine solutions. A wide range of features and options provide optimal solutions.

ABB ACS880single drivesare complete drives and can be installed without any additional cabinet or enclosure. ABB single drive modules configuration contains a rectifier, optional EMC filter, reactor, DC link and an inverter in one single AC drive unit. ABB single drives are available as wall-mounted, free-standing and cabinet-built constructions. The key features of ABB single drivesare programmability and configurability during both ordering and commissioning, which makes adaptation to different applications easy. ABBs ACS880multi-drivesare mounted into a cabinet and the complete assembly isoffered and delivered as one package. Often, the multi-driveswill include additional accessories such as contactorsand earth fault protection units. ABBmulti-drives are built from ABB industrial drive modules connected to a common DC bus. This enables a singlepower entry and common braking resources for several drives.This construction simplifies the total installation, and results in many benefits, including: savings in cabling, reducedinstallation and maintenance costs, reduced line currents and more.ABB multi-drives are built-to-order products.ABB is one of several variable frequency drive manufacturers offered by Precision Electric.

Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers: Eaton / Cutler Hammer

Eaton/Cutler Hammer drives are system drives designed for simple to complex applications. Eaton SVX9000 drives are used in Sullair air compressor applications throughout the United States. Eaton SVX9000 drives are also used globally in oil refineries, marine vessel, power distribution and alternative energy applications. Eaton’sSVX9000adjustable frequency drive offers sensorless vector control technology coupled with an adaptive motor model and sophisticated ASIC circuit features.. This technology allows for steady speed error, fast torque rise time, high immunity to resonance vibrations and high starting torque and current. TheSVX9000is suitable for multiple motor drive systems and high-speed applications.EatonSPX9000drives are designed specifically for high-performance applications. EatonSPX9000drives feature high processing power and the ability to use information from an encoder or a resolver to provide precise motor control. In addition, a fast microprocessor provides high dynamic performance for applications where good motor handling and reliability are required.Eaton is one of several variable frequency drive manufacturers offered by Precision Electric.

Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers: Lenze Americas

Lenze Americas drives are mainly used for any application that does not require speed feedback. Lenze drives are built in America and are an inexpensive solution for food processing, packaging machinery, materials handling, conveying systems, and HVAC systems. The SMV series ofLenzedrives range from IP31 (NEMA 1) and IP65 (NEMA 4/NEMA 4X) in power ratings from 120V to 240V through 480V and600V. The SMV series of Lenzedrives offer sophisticated auto-tuning, fast dynamic toque response with impressive low-speed operation all from a compact and simple to use package. The SMV range is designed for motor applications where dynamic speed and torque control is demanded, making the units ideal for conveyors, food production lines, packaging equipment plus fan & pump systems.The SMV series of Lenze drives use a price leadership tradition in the highly competitive AC drive market. With the benefit of a two year warranty, the SMV series of Lenzedrives offerperformance and flexibility make it an attractive solution for a broad range of applications.

The SMV series ofLenzedrives use price leadership in delivering unparalleled performance and simplicity. The SMV series of Lenze drives is the right choice forperformance, power, packaging and intuitive programming. The Lenze SMV series of Lenze drives use anElectronic Programming Module (EPM) for programming. The Lenze EPM makes for ease of hassle-free reconfiguration within each parameter or resetting the drive to factory or user default settings. When drive reset is necessary, reset to factory default or customer settings in seconds with the EPM. When the EPM equipped drive is used on a line containing multiple drives with the identical setup, it takes just minutes to program the entire line. TheEPM’s can be replaced with or without power connected. When a drive must be replaced, the parameter configuration is not lost, simply plug in the pre-programmed EPM. Lenze is one of several variable frequency drive manufacturers offered by Precision Electric.

Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers: Hitachi

Hitachi AC Variable frequency drives are utilized for an array of applications. Hitachi drives are equipped with several advanced features and deliver unprecedented performance and reliability. Hitachi drives are a result of high degree of commonality between models and user friendly configuration software making them easy to install, program and maintain. The SJ700DHitachi inverter is designed with more capabilities and functions of its predecessor, the Hitachi SJ700B Series. SJ700D inverters come with improved sensorless vector (SLV) control algorithm, which allows the SJ700D Series to develop 150% torque at 0.5 Hz, ideal for a wide range of applications. Another key upgrade in the SJ700D Series is the addition of Hitachi’s EzSQ (Easy Sequence) built-in programming function, which provides the functionality of a PLC built into the inverter.

SJ700D inverters offer built in programming functions. Sequence operations are used by downloading programs created with Hitachi’s EzSQ software and then transferred to the Hitachi inverters. Operation of SJ700D inverters can be tailored to meet changing process requirements and SJ700D inverters can replace separate PLC’s in some cases to simplify or eliminate external hardware, which reduces cost and increases performance. SJ700D Hitachi inverters through 150kW have a built-in EMC filter to reduce electromagnetic noise, cost and space.SJ700Dinverters have a lifetime warning function to allowpreventive maintenancebefore a failure occurs.

The Hitachi industrial WJ200 Series AC Variable FrequencyDrives range from 100-200V single phase input to three phase output, and 200-240V three phase input / output, and 390-480V three phase input / output. The WJ200 Variable Speed Drive comes with an integrated auto-tuning function for easy sensorless vector control that provideshigh starting torque of 200% or greater, suitable for a variety of applications. Hitachi is one of several variable frequency drive manufacturers offered by Precision Electric.

For variable frequency drive repair or replacement quotes, contact Precision Electric.

AC Tech Drive Repair

AC Tech Drive Repair

Should I Repair Or Replace My Drive?

Cost and Production Loss

AC Tech drive repair can be quicker and less expensive than drive replacement. AC Tech drive repair is most economical for: obsoletedrives, out of stock drives, and, drives above 10 horsepower. When a failed AC Tech drive is obsolete or the availability exceeds repair time, AC Tech drive repair can be a better solution than replacement.

AC Tech drives below 10 horsepower typically fail in eight years from their initial installation date.AC Tech drivesbelow 10 horsepower are more often replaced than repaired because the cost of repair will exceed the cost of replacement. AC Tech drives above 10 horsepower have a longer life span, and, are more often repaired than replaced, because the cost of repair is less expensive than the cost of replacement. Depending on the cause of failure, an AC Tech drive repair can cost anywhere from 40%-75% less than the replacement cost.

There are special circumstances that would allow a maintenance technician to choose AC Tech drive repair instead of replacement, regardless of the drive cost. For example: If a crucial production line is down due to AC Tech drive failure, a maintenance technician would look at their options: 1.) AC Tech drive replacement or 2.) AC Tech drive repair. If the AC Tech product needed is not in stock and the lead time is several weeks, the quicker solution would be AC Tech drive repair. The cost of the repair in these situations would first depend on the cost of downtime. If the downtime in production loss exceeds the drive repair time, the maintenance tech would go with the drive repair.

PM Programs

AC Tech drive repair PM programs for larger (above 10hp) AC Tech drives, can prevent severe damage to AC Tech drives. Severely damaged drive repair can cost more than drive replacement, depending on the extent of board and component damage. Preventative maintenance consists of cleanup or replacement of circuit boards and all other electrical components – Followed by 100% component test and final test run with motor; PM programs are typically scheduled out once or twice a year – onsite, when necessary.

AC Tech Drive Repair– Where Should I Send My Drive?

AC Tech drive repairis an asset to manufacturers, but choosing the right source is crucial. If the manufacturer chooses the wrong repair vendor, the mfg. could end up 1.) paying too much, 2.) waiting too long, or, 3.) paying a repair vendor thats outsourcing the repair to a third party, and marking up the cost. Precision Electric performs AC Tech drive repair every day for electrical repair shops who offer repair services. Precision Electric suggests to all manufacturers: make sure your repair vendor is performing the repair and not outsourcing the repair.

All AC Tech drive repair services are performed in house at Precision Electric. Precision Electric replaces bad components and failed parts with the best available components and parts in the electrical industry. All AC Tech drive repair performed by Precision Electric includes a one year in service warranty. The in service warranty ensures that all repaired equipment will receive an entire year of warranty – the warranty begins the day your equipment is put into service. The in service warranty is especially attractivefor spare drives.

AC Tech Drive Repair – Safety

AC Tech drive repair should be taken with extreme caution andonly be performed by trained technicians. Most AC Tech driveshave an internal DC bus that retains a charge after power has been cut to the drive. An untrained drive user can be injured if theyre unaware that power is still active on the drive. A technician working with variable frequency drives must follow certain steps and take extra precautions during a drive repair – This is to prevent injury or death during the repair.

For AC Tech repair quotes, contact Precision Electric. To learn more about AC Tech drive repair and replacement, contact Precision Electric.